Pharmacognosy

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY AND BOTANY

 

MPM name

Source

Constituents

Action, use

Oleum Amygdalarum

Amygdalus communis L. var. dulcis Borkh ex DC., or Amygdalus communis L. var. amara Ludwig ex DC., Rosaceae.

Bitter almond: Fatty oil (non-dehydrating): chief fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid; Cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin; Arabinogalactans; Proteic substances.

Sweet almond: Fatty oil: chief fatty acids oleic acid and linoleic acid. Arabinogalactans. Proteic substances

 

Sweet Almonds have a demulcent and a mild laxative effect. Sweet Almonds are used topically in skin care and liniments. The volatile almond oils are used as flavouring agents.

Oleum Persicorum

Persica vulgaris Mill. or Armeniaca vulgaris Lam., Rosaceae

Peach oil yield triglyceride of oleinic acid and glycerides of linoleic acid. Seeds contain cyanogenetic glycosides, including amygdalin.

Emollient; as a substitute for expressed oil of almond in cold cream and other preparations whose formulas contain expressed oil of almond. Seeds of Prunus persica are used in Chinese medicine due to circulatory stimulant, aperient and antitussive activities.

Oleum Arachidis

Arachis hypogaea L., Fabaceae.

Fatty oil: chief fatty acids include oleic acid, linolic acid and palmitin acid. Also present in small quantities are longer chained fatty acids such as eicosanoic acid and tetracosanoic acid.

as a vehicle for medication in external, enteral or parenteral preparations; the cosmetics industry uses it in skin, sun and massage oil. It is used as a salad or cooking oil that is said to lower blood cholesterol levels.

Oleum Ricini

Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae

Castor oil seeds: Fatty oil; Proteic substances; Lectins; Pyrridine alkaloid ricinine. Triglycerides: chief fatty acid is ricinoleic acid. Tocopherols (vitamin E).

The fixed oil consists of the glycosides of ricinoleic, isoricinoleic, stearic and dihydroxystearic acids.

Stimulant laxative; emollient. Castor-oil seeds are employed mainly for the preparation of castor oil which is extensively used as a purgative and lubricant.

Oleum Cacao (Butyrum Cacao)

Theobroma cacao L., Sterculiaceae

Cocoa butter: Triglycerides: chief fatty acids oleic acid, stearic acid, palmitic acid. Free fatty acids. Steroids: sterols, including β-sitosterol. Purine alkaloids

 

in the making of suppositories (suppository basis), as an excipient for certain pills, and as an emollient; as an inactive ingredient in dermatologic preparations.

Oleum Olivarum

Olea europaea L., Oleaceae

chief fatty acids are oleic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid. Steroids: β-sitosterol, stigmasterol. Tocopherols.

as a lubricant for constipation and dry skin conditions; in the preparation of parenteral drugs, etc., as a salad oil;

has an antisclerotic effect;

Helianthi annui oleum raffinatum

Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae

Triglycerides: chief fatty acids are linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid. Sterols campesterol, cholesterol, β-sitosterol

internally to alleviate constipation (as a lubricant); externally as massage oil, for poorly healing wounds (as an oil dressing) and in the treatment of skin lesions, psoriasis and rheumatism.

 

 

 

 

Cera (beeswax)

purified honeycomb of Apis mellifica and other bees, Apidae

a wax, consisting of about 80% of myricyl palmitate (myricin), with possibly a little myricyl stearate; free cerotic acid, cerolein, hydrocarbons, cholesteryl esters.

yellow wax is used in the preparation of ointments, polishes and plasters

 

Adeps lanae (Lanolinum)

purified fat like substance prepared from the wool of the sheep Ovis aries, Bovidae

cholesterol and isocholesterol (monohydric alcohols) in combination with lanoceric, lanopalmitic and other fatty acids. Wool fat also contains aliphatic alcohols such as cetyl, ceryl and carnaubyl alcohols

wool fat is used as an emmolient base for creams and ointments

 

Cetaceum

waxy substance obtained from the head of the sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, Physeterides

cetyl palmitate or cetin and small percentages of other fatty substances

as a base for cerates and ointments. Sperm oil is widely used as a lubricant for machinery, especially sewing machines