Pharmacognosy

Львівському національному медичному університету

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY AND BOTANY

MPM containing saponins

 

MPM name

Source

Constituents

Action, use

Radices Ginseng

Panax ginseng C.A. Mey (ginseng), Araliaceae

20 saponins (panaxosides): tetracyclic saponins of damarane type (glycosides of those are panaxadiol and panaxatriol), pentacyclic saponins (oleanic acid). Glycosides contain 3 to 6 sugar residues; also found oligo- and polysaccharides, sterines, fatty acids

adaptogenic; used in fatigue after illness

Herba Astragali dasyanthi

Astragalus dasyanthus Pall, Fabaceae

tetracyclic saponins of cycloartane type dasyanthosides; flavonoids; tannins; coumarins.

infusion is used as sedative, hypotensive and diuretic.

Rhizomata et Radices Echinopanacis

Echinopanax horridus subsp. elatum (Oplopanax elatus Nakai), Araliaeae

triterpene saponins echinoxosides; volatile oils; phenolic glycosides

tincture is used as tonic in nervousness

Rhizomata et Radices Eleutherococci

Eleutherococcus senticosus, (eleuthero, Siberian ginseng),

Araliaceae

eleutherosides (triterpene saponins; coumarins; lignans); resin; gums

fluid extract stimulates central nervous system; adaptogenic

Herba Equiseti arvensis

Equisetum arvense L., (horsetail),

Equisetaceae

saponins; flavonoids (derivatives of apigenine, luteoline, caemferol, quercitine); tannins; phenolic acids; silicates

antihemorrhagic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, lytolytic

Flores Calendulae

Calendula officinalis L. (marigold), Asteraceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type. Among triterpene saponins are oleanolic acid-derivatives (calendulosides A and B); triterpenoids (α-, β-amyrene, taraxasterol); carotenoids; flavonoids; volatile oils, sesquiterpene lactones of bitter taste(calendine); sterols

anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic; antiseptic in wounds and burns healing; for gangling in angina, tonsillitis

Radices Glycyrrhizae

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice), Fabaceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type; glycyrrhizic acid, triterpene glycosides; flavonoids; pectins, saccharides, resins; bitters.

demulcent, expectorant and flavoring agent for drugs; component of Species pectoralis #2

Semina Hyppocastani

Aesculus hippocastanum L., (horse chestnut), Hippocastanaceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type;

triterpene saponins-complex known as aescine (oleanane-derivatives); flavonoids

aescine possesses venotonic and capillary resistance increasing action

Rhizomata et Radices Polemonii

Polemonium coeruleum L., Polemoniaceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type; triterpene saponins (of β-amyrene type), resin

expectorant, sedative

Radices Araliae mandshuricae

Aralia mandshurica Rupr. et Maxim(A. elata (Mig)Seem), Araliaceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type; triterpene saponins (aralozides); resins

tonic action in asthenic and nervousness, hypotonia, depression

Folia Orthosiphonis staminei

Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, Lamiaceae

pentacyclic saponins of ursane type; triterpenoid saponins (α-amyrene-derivatives, ursolic acid); flavonoids; volatile oils

spasmolytic, diuretic in treatment of kidney stone disease and cholecystitis

Rhizomata et Radices Dioscoreae

Dioscorea nipponica Makino, D. deltoides Wall., Dioscoreaceae

steroid saponins (glycosides of diosgenine- dioscine and gracyline).

diosgenin is a substance for synthesis of hormone steroid pharmaceuticals- cortisone and progesterone

Herba Tribuli terrestris

Tribulus terrestris L., Zygophyllaceae

steroid saponins (dioscine, gracyline, gecogenine); flavonoids

antisclerothic and hypotensive

Semina Foenigraeci

Trigonella foenum-graecum L., (fenugreek), Fabaceae

steroid saponins (diosgenine, tigogenine, gitogenine); mucilages; fixed oils; flavonoids

material for steroid hormones manufacturing;

antisclerotic and tonic action

Folia Agavae

Agava americana L. , (agave, century plant), A. sisalana Perrino, Agavaceae

steroid saponins (gecohenin, manohenin, hytohenin).

material for steroid hormones manufacturing

MPM name

Source

Constituents

Action, use

Radices Ginseng

Panax ginseng C.A. Mey (ginseng), Araliaceae

20 saponins (panaxosides): tetracyclic saponins of damarane type (glycosides of those are panaxadiol and panaxatriol), pentacyclic saponins (oleanic acid). Glycosides contain 3 to 6 sugar residues; also found oligo- and polysaccharides, sterines, fatty acids

adaptogenic; used in fatigue after illness

Herba Astragali dasyanthi

Astragalus dasyanthus Pall, Fabaceae

tetracyclic saponins of cycloartane type dasyanthosides; flavonoids; tannins; coumarins.

infusion is used as sedative, hypotensive and diuretic.

Rhizomata et Radices Echinopanacis

Echinopanax horridus subsp. elatum (Oplopanax elatus Nakai), Araliaeae

triterpene saponins echinoxosides; volatile oils; phenolic glycosides

tincture is used as tonic in nervousness

Rhizomata et Radices Eleutherococci

Eleutherococcus senticosus (eleuthero, Siberian ginseng),

Araliaceae

eleutherosides (triterpene saponins; coumarins; lignans); resin; gums

fluid extract stimulates central nervous system; adaptogenic

Herba Equiseti arvensis

Equisetum arvense L., (horsetail), Equisetaceae

saponins; flavonoids (derivatives of apigenine, luteoline, caemferol, quercitine); tannins; phenolic acids; silicates

antihemorrhagic, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, lytolytic

Flores Calendulae

Calendula officinalis L. (marigold), Asteraceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type. Among triterpene saponins are oleanolic acid-derivatives (calendulosides A and B); triterpenoids (α-, β-amyrene, taraxasterol); carotenoids; flavonoids; volatile oils, sesquiterpene lactones of bitter taste(calendine); sterols

anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic; antiseptic in wounds and burns healing; for gangling in angina, tonsillitis

Radices Glycyrrhizae

Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice), Fabaceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type; glycyrrhizic acid, triterpene glycosides; flavonoids; pectins, saccharides, resins; bitters.

demulcent, expectorant and flavoring agent for drugs; component of Species pectoralis #2

Semina Hyppocastani

Aesculus hippocastanum L., (horse chestnut), Hippocastanaceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type;

triterpene saponins-complex known as aescine (oleanane-derivatives); flavonoids

aescine possesses venotonic and capillary resistance increasing action

Rhizomata et Radices Polemonii

Polemonium coeruleum L., Polemoniaceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type; triterpene saponins (of β-amyrene type), resin

expectorant, sedative

Radices Araliae mandshuricae

Aralia mandshurica Rupr. et Maxim(A. elata (Mig)Seem), Araliaceae

pentacyclic saponins of oleane type; triterpene saponins (aralozides); resins

tonic action in asthenic and nervousness, hypotonia, depression

Folia Orthosiphonis staminei

Orthosiphon stamineus Benth, Lamiaceae

pentacyclic saponins of ursane type; triterpenoid saponins (α-amyrene-derivatives, ursolic acid); flavonoids; volatile oils

spasmolytic, diuretic in treatment of kidney stone disease and cholecystitis

Rhizomata et Radices Dioscoreae

Dioscorea nipponica Makino, D. deltoides Wall., Dioscoreaceae

steroid saponins (glycosides of diosgenine- dioscine and gracyline).

diosgenin is a substance for synthesis of hormone steroid pharmaceuticals- cortisone and progesterone

Herba Tribuli terrestris

Tribulus terrestris L., Zygophyllaceae

steroid saponins (dioscine, gracyline, gecogenine); flavonoids

antisclerothic and hypotensive

Semina Foenigraeci

Trigonella foenum-graecum L., (fenugreek), Fabaceae

steroid saponins (diosgenine, tigogenine, gitogenine); mucilages; fixed oils; flavonoids

material for steroid hormones manufacturing;

antisclerotic and tonic action

Folia Agavae

Agava americana L. , (agave, century plant), A. sisalana Perrino, Agavaceae

steroid saponins (gecohenin, manohenin, hytohenin).

material for steroid hormones manufacturing