Pharmacognosy

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY AND BOTANY

MPM name

Source

Constituents

Action, use

Folia Belladonnae, Herba Belladonnae, Radices Belladonnae

Atropa belladonna L., A. caucasica Kreyer., Solanaceae

alkaloids (0.3-0.6%) : hyoscyamine (90%), atropine, belladonnine, scopolamine (2%) and their dehydration products (apoatropine and aposcopolamine); flavonoids; coumarins; sterines

 

atropine is parasympatholytic (anticholinergic); mydryatic; analgesic; indicated

for symptomatic treatment of pain due to functional problems of the

gastrointestinal and biliary tracts, and

as an antispasmodic for uretral colics

Folia Hyoscyami, Herba Hyoscyami

Hyoscyamus niger (henbane), Solanaceae

at least total alkaloids: 0.04-0.15%. Hyoscyamine is the chief constituent, and the percentage of scopolamine can be high (25% and more). Leaves yield flavonoids (rutin). Glycosides hyoscypicrin, hyoscyresine, methylaesculin also occur

henbane oil is used for treatment of neuralgias and rheumatism

Folia Daturae

 

Datura stramonium (Stramonium, Jimson weed, thorn apple),

Solanaceae

alkaloids (0.2-0.5%), hyoscyamine and scopolamine represent two-thirds and one-third of the total alkaloids, respectively; volatile oils (0,04%); carotenoids; tannins

stramonium oil is used for treatment of neuralgias and rheumatism, and is an ingredient of various liniments

Fructus Daturae innoxiae, Semina Daturae innoxiae

Datura innoxia Mill., Solanaceae

alkaloids (0.2-0.4%), the major is scopolamine; hyoscyamine, tropine, pseudotropine, nicotine is also found

fruits are the source of scopolamine hydrobromide, acid camphor salts of scopolamine and hyoscyamine (Aeronum, used for air- and seasickness, yields these two acid camphor salts)

Radices Berberidis, Folia Berberidis

 

Berberis vulgaris L., (barberry), Berberidaceae

alkaloids berberine, oxyacanthine, berbamine, columbamine, palmatine, jatrorrhizin; chelidonic acid; polysaccharides; anthocyanes; ascorbic acid

bark and rootbark are cholagogue, hepatic. Berberine is antibacterial. The fruit, or freshly pressed juice, is used for treatment of liver and gall bladder problems, kidney stones, menstrual pains. Tincture of leaves is used in vaginal hypotony and as an antihaemorrhage agent

Folia Ungerniae victoris

Ungernia victoris Uved. ex Artjushenko, Amaryllidaceae

alkaloids galanthamine, galanthine, lycorine (0.05-0.1%)

galanthamine hydrobromide is an anticholinesterasic in myasthenia and radiculitis. Lycorine hydrochloride exhibits broncholytic action and is used as an expectorant

Tubera et radices Stephaniae glabrae

Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers, Menispermaceae

alkaloids (total content 6-8%): hyndarine (up to 30%), stephaglabrine (stepharine) (15-18%), cycleanine

hyndarine hydrochloride is tranquilizer (sedative and hypotensive), stephaglabrine sulphate is anticholinesterasic

Herba et fructus Conii maculati

Conium maculatum L.,

(hemlock, conium), Apiaceae

up to 0.1% of alkaloids - lysine alkaloids of coniine structure: coniine, ethyl-piperidine, methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudo-conhydrine; volatile oil; caffeic acid; flavonoids

is supposed to be a narcotic; its alkaloids cause paralysis of the peripheral endings of motor nerves

Herba Chelidonii

 

 

 

Chelidonium majus L., (celandine), Papaveraceae

about thirty alkaloids (mostly concentrated in the subterranean parts: up to 2%) : benzophenanthridines (chelidonine, homo-, oxy-, methoxychelidonine, chelerythrine, sanguinarine); protopines, protoberberines (berberine); saponins; flavonoids; carotene

the extract is an antibacterial and antiviral agent. Benzophenanthridines are cytotoxic. The plant is used for cramp-type gastrointestinal and biliary disorders. Celandine latex is a remedy in folk medicine for warts.

Radices Gentianae

Gentiana lutea L., (gentian root), Gentianaceae

alkaloid gentianine; secoiridoids gentiopikroside, its isomers and glycosides (gentiopicrine, amarogentine, disaccharide gentiobiose); amaroponine, amaroswerine; xanthones (gentisine, isogentisine); resinous matter; specific trisaccharide gentianose

improve appetite, strengthens digestion; has a cholagogue, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic action

Capitata Papaveris, Opium

Papaver somniferum

L., (opium poppy),

Papaveraceae

more than 30 different alkaloids : not less than 10.0 % morphine, 2.0 % codeine, nos-capine (formerly narcotine), papaverine, 0.5 to 2.5%; and thebaine. Opium yields 3-5 % of meconic acid

opium is used for production of morphine and codeine. Opium and its derivatives are used in the pharmaceutical industry as narcotic analgesics, hypnotics, and sedative agents

Herba Glaucii flavi

 

Glaucium flavum Crantz (yellow hornpoppy), Papaveraceae

aporphine alkaloids glaucine (about 50% of total alkaloid content), coridine, isocoridine; protoberberine alkaloid isoboldine; protopine and its derivative allocryptopine; benzphenanthridine alkaloids sanguinarine, cheleretrine, chelerubin, cheledonine, magnoflorine; also found fumaric (glaucinic) acid; mucilage; flavonoids (rutin)

glaucine antitussive action exceeds codeine and doesn't possess a

narcotic effect

 

Herba Macleayae

Macleaya cordata (Willd.)R.Br, M. microcarpa (Maxim.)Fed., Papaveraceae

isochinoline alkaloids (0.7-1.5%) : sanguinarine, protopine, berberine, cheleretrine, allocryptopine

bisulphates of

sanguinarine and cheleretrine exhibit

antimicrobic and anticholineretic action

Herba Passiflorae incarnatae

Passiflora incarnata L.,

(passion flower, maypop), Passifloraceae

indole alkaloids

(harmine, harmane, harmole); pectins; flavonoids; coumarins; quinones; ascorbic acid; catechol; gallic, palmitic, myristic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids; melissyl alcohol; sitosterol

sedative, used in insomnia and neurosthenia; motor depressant in neuralgia

Radices, Herba Aconiti soongorici

recens

Aconitum soongoricum L., Ranunculaceae

diterpene alkaloids (0.3-0.6% in the herb, up to 2% in the underground parts), major alkaloid is aconitine; soongorine and monoacetylsoongorine

applied as an antitumour remedy in folk medicine

Herba Aconiti leucostomi

Aconitum leucostomum Worosch., Ranunculaceae

up to 4% of diterpene alkaloids (lappaconitine, lappaconidine, mesaconitine, axine); saponins; coumarins; tannins

Alapinine (mixture of lappaconitine hydrobromide and other alkaloids) is an antiarrhythmic drug

Herba Delphinii dictyocarpi

Delphinium dictyocarpum DC, Ranunculaceae

up to 1,5% of diterpene and isochinoline alkaloids (condelphine, elatine, delsimine), the yield of major alkaloid methyllicaconitine in fruits reaches 0.9%

curare-like acting drug Mellictine is used as a muscle relaxant

Radices Aconiti napellus

 

Aconitum napellus L.(aconite), Ranunculaceae

aconitine (ester alkaloid of complex structure, a diester, the acetylated and benzoylated derivative of a diterpenoid pentahydroxylated alkylamine, namely aconine)

administered in various forms of neuralgia

Herba Lobeliae

Lobelia inflata L. (lobelia), Lobeliaceae

active principle is an acrid, irritating, unstable alkaloid, called lobeline, and the others include lobelidine, lobelanine, lobelanidine, isolobenine, as well as fourteen pyridine alkaloids, which give the plant a total alkaloid content of up to 0.63 percent

 

lobeline is an expectorant in chronic pneumonia and bronchitis, anti-asthmatic; also used in antismoking products. Lobeline hydrochloride is an analeptic agent

Rhizomata et radices Senecionis platyphylloides, Herba Senecionis platyphylloides

Senecio platyphylloides (Adenostyles platyphylloides (Willd) M.Pimen.), Asteraceae

all parts of the plant yield alkaloids platyphylline, senecifilline, saracine, neoplatyphylline, senecionine, mostly at N-oxidized form. The herb yields 0.5-0.9% of platyphylline

platyphylline hydrotartrate is spasmolytic, and is used in pulmonary and hepatic affections (bronchial asthma, cholecystitis). Due to its sedative action, it is prescribed in seasickness

Herba Solani laciniati

Solanum laciniatum Ait., Solanaceae

glycoalkaloids solasodine and solamargine (2%)

glycoalkaloid solasodine is a substance for hemisynthesis of progesterone and cortisone

Rhizomata et radices Veratri

Veratrum lobelianum Bernth., Melanthaceae

glycoalkaloids of jerveratric group (jervine, pseudo-jervine, rubijervive) and derivatives of tsevane (hermine, protoverine, veratsevine, tsigadenine); tannins; resins; sugars

tincture is used externally as an insecticide

Bulbotubera Colchici recentia

 

Colchicum autumnale L., C. speciosum Stev., Melanthiaceae

colchicine (0.25- 0.6%), colchiceine, colchicoside; flavonoids; phytosterines; aromatic acids

colchicine has an antimitotic effect (treatment of skin cancer with its ointment)

Cormi Securinegae

Securinega suffruticosa (Pall.) Rehd., Euphorbiaceae

alkaloids : securinine, suffruticodine, suffruticonine, allosecurinine, dihydro suffruticonine, securinols A, B, C

securinine nitrate is used as tonic in astenia, paralyses, neurostenia and as CNS stimulant, as a strychnine substitute

Herba Selaginis (Herba Huperziae)

 

Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. Ex Schrank et Mert., syn. Lycopodium selago L., Huperziaceae

alkaloids (0.4-1,1%) : selagine, lycopodine, pseudoselagin; flavonoids of quercitin structure

5% decoction of the herb is used in treatment of chronic alcoholism

Rhizomata Scopoliae

carniolicae

Scopolia carniolica Jacq, (scopolia), Solanaceae

alkaloids hyoscyamine, scopolamine (0.55%); coumarins (scopoletine)

rhizomes were used to obtain tropane alkaloids

Herba Ephedrae

Ephedra

equisetina Bunge, E. sinica Stapf., E. intermedia Schrenk and C.A. Meyer, E. gerardiana Wall ex Stapf. Ephedraceae

 

protoalkaloids - phenethylamine-type derivatives ( up to 2%) :

ephedrine represents from 40 to 90% of the total alkaloids and its concentration varies depending on the species; pseudoephedrine, N-methylephedrine; flavonoids and proanthocyanidins; tannins

ephedrine relaxes bronchial smooth muscles. Its adrenomimetic effect on a-adrenergic receptors results in vasoconstriction in the skin and mucous membranes and provides anti-allergic action; stimulates CNS in morphine and scopolamine poisoning

Cornua secalis cornuti stam ergotamini (ertgotoxini)

Claviceps purpurea (Fries) Tulasne (Clavicipitaceae), Ascomycetes

indole alkaloids ergonovine, ergotamine, ergotoxine; imidazole alkaloids; simple amines (hystamine, thyramine, aminoacids), fixed oil; ergosterol; fungisterol

ergometrine maleate increases rate and amplitude of uterine contractions, is used with caffeine for the treatment of migraine headache. Ergotamine tartrate is used to prevent or relieve vascular headaches. Bromcryptinum supresses prolactin secrection and is prescribed in breast cancer

Folia Catharanthi rosei

Catharanthus roseus G. Don. (Vinca rosea L.) (madagascan periwinkle), Apocynaceae

0.2 to 1% alkaloids of an indole or dihydroindole structure (vindoline, catharanthine, ajmalicine, akuammine, lochnerine, tetrahydroalstonine, serpentine)

antineoplastic activity (arrests cell division at metaphase). Vinblastine sulphate and vincristine sulphate are prescribed in anticancer chemotherapy

Herba Vincae minoris

Vinca minor L.(common periwinkle), Apocynaceae

0.3 to 1% total alkaloids. Vincamine, which represents about 10% of the total alkaloids, occurs alongside approximately thirty other indole alkaloids of the eburnan type (vincine, epivincamine, eburnamonine) vincaminorine, pervicine, vincamidine; ursulic acid; flavonoid robinine; leucoanthocyanes

is used in treatment of, cramps of brain vessels, hypertension, the sequelae of cerebrovascular accidents

Semina Strychni (Nux vomica)

Strychnos nux vomica, S. ignatii, Loganiaceae

1-2 % of alkaloids, major ones are strychnine and brucine (dimethoxystrychnine);

proteins; chlorogenic acid; loganic acid

strychnine is a central stimulant, tincture and dried extract of nux vomica are used for reflex excitement

Semina Cacao

Theobroma cacao L. (cacao seeds, cacao beans), Sterculiaceae

theobromine (0.9-3%), caffeine (0.05-0.36%); lipids (43-53%); water soluble polyphenolic compounds (epicathechine, leucoanthocyanes, anthocyanes)

theobromine is a smooth muscle relaxant and diuretic. Cocoa butter is used pharmaceutically as a suppository base

Folia Sterculiae platanifoliae (Folia Firmianae simplicis)

Sterculia platanofolia L. (Firmiana simplex (L.) W.Wight.), Sterculiaceae

purine alkaloids; betaine; tannins (4%), mostly pyrocathechins; organic acids

tincture of leaves is used as a stimulant and a tonic in tiredness and hypotension

Semina Coffeae

Coffea arabica L. (coffee bean, coffee seed), Rubiaceae

caffeine, theobromine, theophylline (1-2%); tannins (3-5%); glucose, dextrine (15%); fixed oil (10-13%); proteins (10-13%)

caffeine and related compounds are central nervous system stimulants. Its sodium benzoate is used for intramuscular injection as an analeptic in treatment of poisonings, as a stimulant in acute circulatory failure, and as a diuretic

Folia Theae

Thea sinensis L. (syn. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) (tea), Theaceae

alkaloids caffeine (5%) and theophylline; cathechin, its derivatives (vitamin P), flavonoids and tannins; vitamins C, PP, B1, B2;

CNS stimulant; antidotal, antitoxic; vitamin P activity;

astringent, cardiotonic

Rhizomata Nupharis lutei

Nuphar luteum (L.) Sm. (water lily), Nymphaeaceae

sesquiterpenoid alkaloids of quinolizidine structure (nupharolidine, deoxynupharidine, nupha-cristine), piperidines (nuphamine), dimers, which incorporate a sulfur atom (thiobinupharidine, or nuphleine); tannins, sitosterine, stigmasterine; carotene; starch

lutenorine (mixture of hydrochlorides of water lily) externally exhibits a contraceptive action, is used in treatment of chronic trichomonadosis and urinary infections; the rhizomes are used as adjunctive itch-relieving treatment of skin disorders; in management of sunburns, and diaper rashes

Radices Rauwolfiae

Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz. (snakewood), R. vomitoria Afz., R. canescens L., Apocynaceae

the total alkaloids (0.5-2.5%) constitute a complex mixture of nearly thirty different compounds, mostly indoles reserpine and rescinnamine; yohimbine, corynantheine, ajmalicine (also known as raubasine), ajmaline

reserpine and its medicines are prescribed in hypertension and psychoneuroses. Reserpine in combination with thiazide diuretic is prescribed in arterial hypertension.

Ajmaline exhibits antiarythmic action

Fructus Capsici

Capsicum annuum L., Solanaceae

capsaidnoides (capsaicine, dihydrocapsaicine, homodihydrocapsaicine); vitamins C, P, B1, B2, B9, carotenoids; flavonoids

topical preparations of capsaicin are used in treatment of neuralgia and arthritis

Herba Sophorae pachycarpae

 

Sophora pachycarpa L., Fabaceae

quinolizidine alkaloids (2-3%) pachycarpine and its optical isomer sparteine, sophocarpine, anabasine, methylcetisine, pachycarpine oxide; flavonoids; organic acids

pachycarpine hydroiodide is a ganglioblocker, used in gynecology to stimulate child-birth and to arrest haemorrhages

Herba Thermopsidis,Semina thermopsidis

Thermopsis lanceolata R.Br., Fabaceae

herb yields up to 2.5% alkaloids (mainly thermopsine and its isomer anagirine, homothermopsine, citisine, methylcetisine, pachycarpine; glycoside thermopsilancine); flavonoids; saponins; mucilages. Seeds yield at least 2.5% of citisine

herb is an expectorant, due to the content of saponins and alkaloids. Cititone (citisine based medicine) is an analeptic

Herba Thermopsidis alternif lorae

Thermopsis alterniflora Rgl. et Schmalh., Fabaceae

herb is the sourse of citisine (content of alkaloids not less than 1%)

cititone (0.15% solution of citisine) is analeptic, tablets Tabex is prescribed as an antismoking means