Pharmacognosy

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY AND BOTANY

MPM, containing flavonoids

 

MPM name

Source

Constituents

Action, use

Fructus Crataegi, Flores Crataegi

Crataegus sanguinea Pal, C. monogyna Jacq. Lindm, C. laevigata (Poiret) D.C. (C. oxyacantha), C. pentagyna Waldst. et Kit. ex Willd, Rosaceae

Fruits: procyanidins (hyperoside) epicathechins, leucoanthocyanidin oligomers; pectins; ascorbic acid.

Flowers : vitexin and its glycosides, biosides, di- and oligoglycosides of leucoanthocyanidins, epicathechins, (+)-cathechin, dihydrocathechin dimers;

triterpenoid acids (ursulic, oleanic, crataegic, acanthic acid) occur in both MPM.

cardiotonic, hypotensive, sedative and spasmolytic;

increase coronary and myocardial circulation; treat abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm in the adult

Herba Equiseti

Equisetum arvense L., (horsetail), Equisetaceae

flavonoids (isoquercitroside; derivatives of apigenin, luteolin, kaemferol, quercitin); minerals (silicon SiO2); sterols; phenolic acids

diuretic, to enhance urinary and digestive elimination functions

Folia Ginkgo

Ginkgo biloba L., Ginkgoaceae

flavone glycosides; flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, and biflavonoids; terpenesditerpenes (ginkgolides A, B, C, J) and sesquiterpenes (bilobalide)

spasmolytic, vasodilatating; vasoregulating agent for "cerebral insufficiency"

Herba Hyperici

Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericaceae

flavonoids (hyperin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin; biflavonoids); naphthodianthrones (hypericin, pseudohypericin, protohypericin and protopseudohypericin);

essential oil; phenolics: caffeic acids, chlorogenic acid, prenylated derivatives of phloroglucinol; condensed tannins

wound-healing; antiseptic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antihaemorrhage, astrigent action; antidepressant (mild and moderate depression)

Flores Tiliae

Tilia cordata Miller, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Tiliaceae

flavones: acacetin-7-glucoside (tilianin), flavanones: rutinoside of hesperitin, flavonoles: derivatives of kaemferol (tiliroside), quercitin and herbacetin; volatile oil (pharnesol, 2-phenylethanol, monoterpenoids); mucilage;. tannins, leucoanthocyanidins

sweated, emmolient, anti-inflammatory, diuretic remedy; increases blood coagulation

Herba Leonuri

Leonurus cardiaca L., L.quinquelobatus Gilib., Lamiaceae

flavonoids: quinqueloside, rutin, quercitin, cosmosiin, isoquercitin, hyperoside;

iridoids of aucubin type (harpagide, ajugol, ajugoside);

diterpenes (marubin), terpenoids; tannins; volatile oil

sedative and hypotensive in cardiac and vessel neurosis, initial stage of hypertony, casdiosclerosis

Flores Sambuci nigrae

Sambucus nigra L. (elder), Caprifoliaceae

flavonoids (isoquercitroside; rutin, derivatives of quercitin, kaemferol, astragalin; anthocyanidins; cyanoglycoside sambunigrine); phenolic acids; amines; tannins; mucilages

sweated (colds and catarrhal conditions, chronic bronchitis), mild expectorant; anti-inflammatory (gynecology); diuretic

Fructus et Alabastrae Sophorae japonicae

Sophora japonica, Fabaceae

rutin (up to 20%), quercitin, kaemferol-3-sophoroside, quercitin-3-rutinoside, genistein-4-sophorobioside

sourse of rutin and quercitin (vitamin P), used for internal haemorrhages, poor peripheral circulation. The tincture of fruits is antibacterial

Fructus Aroniae melanocarpae recentes

Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot, (black chokeberry), Rosaceae

flavonoids rutin, quercitin, hesperidin, cathechins; cyanidins and its glycosides; phenolic acids; lipids;pectins; ascorbic acid (110mg%), nicotinic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, tocoferol, carotenoids; iodine (5-6 mcg/100g)

vitaminic remedy; prophylaxis of vitamin P insufficience; hypotensive

Flores Helichrysi arenarii

Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench.,

Asteraceae

flavanone naringenin and its glycosides salipurposide, isosalipurposide, helichrysin; flavones apigenin and its 5-glycoside; flavonoles kaemferol derivatives; derivatives of phtalic anhydryte; tannins; sterols; mucilages; carotenoids

cholagogue, stimulating gastric and pancreatic secrection

Herba Gnaphalii uliginosi

Gnaphalium uliginosum L., Asteraceae

flavonoles quercetin, kaemferol, flavones gnaphalosides A,B, scutellarin 7-O-glucoside, 6-methoxyluteolin; tannins; resins; carotenoids

vasodilatating, hypotensive; antibacterial; oil extract acts as wound-healing agent

Radices Scutellariae baicalensis

Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Lamiaceae

flavones and their glycosides- baicalin (baicalein-7-O-glucurenide), scutellarin (scutellarin7-O-glucurenide), vogonin; oroxylin

sedative; hypotensive; tincture is used in hypertension of 1st and 2nd stages

Radices Ononidis

Ononis arvensis L, Fabaceae

isoflavonoids- formonetin, ononin, onogenin, ononegenin-7-glucoside, onospin; volatile oil; tannins; triterpenoid saponins

decoction is diuretic and antihaemorrhage in haemorrhoid; tincture is anabolic

Herba Polygoni persicariae

Polygonum persicaria L.,(redshank, ladys thumb), Polygonaceae

Flavonoids ( hyperoside, isoquercitin, avicularin, persicarin, tetramethylquercitin); vitamin K; tannin, phlobaphens, free gallic acid; phyloquinones; pectins

antihaemorrhage action in haemorrhoidal vaginal bleedings

Herba Polygoni avicularis

Polygonum aviculare L. (knot-grass, goose-grass), Polygonaceae

flavonoids avicularin (=quercitin-3-arabinoside), quercitin, hyperoside, cathechins;

phenolic acids, water soluble silicates, tannins (about 4%), lignan aviculin

astringent; diuretic, lytolytic;

in pulmonary complaints;

haemostatic in gynecology

Herba Polygoni hydropiperis

Polygonum hydropiper L., Polygonaceae

flavonoids: rutin, quercitin, hyperoside, kaemferol, isorhamnetin, rhamnetin, rhamnosin; persicarines; tannins, free gallic and ellagic acids; vitamins K, C; essential oil,

bicyclic sesquiterpenoid, polygodial

anti-inflammatory, astringent, diuretic, lytolytic; in the treatment of excessive menstrual bleeding and haemorrhoids

Herba Tanaceti

Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy), Asteraceae

flavonoids : derivatives of apigenin, luteolin; alkaloids, tannins; organic acids; a bitter substance tanacetin; volatile oil containing thujone, borneol, pinenes, isothujone

antihelmintic; aromatic bitter, cholagogue; hypertensive

Folia Theae

Thea sinensis L. (syn. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) (tea), Theaceae

 

cathechin, its derivatives (vitamin P), flavonoids and tannins; alkaloids caffeine and

theophylline; vitamins C, PP, B1, B2

CNS stimulant; antidotal, antitoxic; vitamin P activity;

astringent, cardiotonic

Flores Centaureae cyani

Centaurea cyanus (Bachelors buttons, bluebonnet), Asteraceae

anthocyanes - cyanin (cyanidin-3,5-diglycoside), derivatives of pelargonidin; flavones apigenin diglucoside, luteolin; flavonoles quercetin-glucoside, quercetin-7-rutinoside, rutin; saponins; coumarin cichorin; pectins

mild diuretic in liver and gallbladder complaints; antibacterial, anti-inflammatory