Pharmacognosy

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY AND BOTANY

 

MPM, containing naphto- and anthraquinones

Plants for practical course*

MPM name

Source

Constituents

Action, use

Radices Rhei

Rheum palmatum L, var. tanguticum (Rhubarb), Polygonaceae

chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, emodin and emodin monomethyl ether, or physcion, their glycosides (chrysophanein and glucoaloe-emodin), anthrones, dianthrones; rhein, glucorhein; sennosides A and B, E, F); astringent compounds, mainly hydrolyzable tannins (up to 12%)

laxative and astrigent

Cortex Frangulae

Rhamnus frangula L. (Frangula alnus) (frangula bark, alder buckthorn), Rhamnaceae

The rhamnoside franguloside, or frangulin, consisting of two isomers, frangulosides A and B, the monosides are frangulin A (= emodin 6-0-a-L-rhamnoside) and frangulin B (= emodin 6-O-b-D-apioside). The fresh bark also contains anthranols and anthrones; emodin-dianthrone, palmidin C, palmidineC-monorhamnoside and emodin-diantharone monorhamnoside, emodin-8-O-gentiobioside

laxative;

ingredient of laxative and antihaemorhoidal teas

Fructus Rhamni catharticae

Rhamnus cathartica L (common buckthorn), Rhamnaceae

chrysophanol, rhamnocatharnin (glucofranguline), rhamnoxanthin (frangulin); frangula-emodin, rhamnicoside, which yields on hydrolysis rhamnicogenol (an anthraquinone derivative), glucose and xylose. Flavonoids and tannins also found

decoction is used as a mild laxative (hemorrhoids, after anal or rectal surgery); ingredient of laxative teas and herbal collections

Folia Sennae, Fructus Sennae

Cassia senna L.

(C . acutifolia Delile), Alexandrian or Khartoum senna, Cassia angustifolium Vahl, (Tinnevelly senna), Fabaceae

sennosides, which are glycosides of dianthrone-type aglycones, in other words sennidins. Sennosides A and B are major components. Other dimers found in fair quantities in the dried drug are sennosides C and D, which are the 8,8' diglucosides of sennidin C and D and the isomers of a heterodianthrone, namely rhein aloe-emodin dianthron

laxative; often included into laxative and antihaemorrhoidai teas and herbal collections. The therapeutic indication is the symptomatic treatment of constipation

Folia Juglandis

Juglans regia L. (walnut tree), Juglandaceae

naphtoquinones : juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), reduced derivatives (hydrojuglone); hydrolyzable tannins. The leaf also contains a small amount of essential oil, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, carotene and microelements

tincture is astrigent, anti-inflammatory and wound-healing. Walnut oil is antisclerotic

Herba Hyperici

Hypericum perforatum, (St.Johns herb), Hypericaceae

condensed anthraquinones (0,5%): hypericine, pseudohypericine, dianthranol-derivatives; tannins; flavonoids; resins; volatile oils

astrigent, antimicrobic, antihaemorrhage, anti-inflammatory; antidepressant

Folia Aloes arborescentis recens

Aloe arborescens Mill., (krantz aloe), Liliaceae

oxymethylanthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, C-glycoside aloin (aloe-emodin anthrone + arabinose), nataloin (anthrone+arabinose); also found ferments, polysaccharides, resins, vitamins, organic acids

the fresh leaves are the source of biogenic stimulants (immunomodulating, bactericidic and anti-inflammatory activity); purgative properties

Rhizomata et radices Rubiae

Rubia tinctorum L, Rubiaceae

alizarine and its bioside ruberithrinic acid, lucedine and its bioside lucidinprimverosine, rubiadine with rubiadinprimverosine, purpurine-3-carbonilic acid; also found purpurine, xanthopurpurine and methylic ester of alizarine; methylhydroxyanthraquinones

lytolitic (alizarine derivatives dissolve kidney stones), spasmolytic and diuretic