Pharmacognosy

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOGNOSY AND BOTANY

Tablets, briquettes, cut and pressed MPM are pharmaceuticals, obtained by pressing of powdered MPM. Their advantage is an accuracy of dosage, comfortability of transportation, storage and use.

Briquettes, cut and pressed MPM ("granules") are used for preparation of infusions, decoctions.

Tablets of MPM are used in treatment for internal use directly.

Nomenclature of tablets of MPM is represented by powders of Radices Rhei; Herba Thermopsidis (with sodium hydrocarbonate); Flores Calendulae (with nicotinic acid; also with ferric oxide in "caferide").

 

Chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturers produce briquettes of such forms:

Rectangle - Folia Vitis idaeae, Folia Eucalypti, Folia Urticae, Folia Uvae ursi, Folia Ortosiphoni staminei, Folia Plantaginis majoris, Folia Sennae, Herba Hyperici, Herba Origani, Herba Equiseti, Herba Bidentis, Flores Crataegi, Flores Tiliae.

Round -Folia Menthae piperitae, Herba Millefolii, Herba Leonuri, Flores Calendulae, Flores Chamomillae recutitae, Rhizomata Tormentillae, Rhizomata et radices Inulae, Species Arphasetinum.

Cut and pressed- Folia Farfarae, Folia Sennae, Herba Millefolii, Herba Leonuri, Herba Gnaphalii uliginosi, Herba Equiseti.

 

MPM briquettes of rectangular form is a layer of pressed MPM, length 170-175mm, width 65-67 mm, height 10-13 mm, mass 70, 75,100g, upper surface is divided by the furrow into 10 equal parts.

MPM briquettes of round form are cylinders of pressed MPM with squint edges, diameter 20-30mm, height 14-15mm, mass 5 or 8g.

Cut and pressed MPM are parts of cylindrical form, diameter 5mm, and length 8-12mm, mass 0.2g.

Briquettes, cut and pressed MPM are obtained from powdered MPM, sifted through a 2-5mm sieve, by direct pressing (briquettes) or in special forming machines (cut and pressed MPM).

 

Powdered MPM is used in medicine, in manufacturing of tablets, briquettes pressed and cut MPM. Particular methods of analysis are employed for such drug forms.

To determine identity of tablets, briquettes, cut and pressed MPM study external signs, and microscopic characters of powdered MPM after crushing.

During cut and pressed MPM analysis, boil parts in 3% sodium hydroxide solution for 2-3min to destroy pressed parts, wash with water 2 or 3 times, analyze in chloralhydrate solution.

 

Quality of tablets, briquettes, cut and pressed MPM is determined according to requirements of monographs, as well

- quantitative content of active substances;

- weight loss during drying;

- total ash content and acid-insoluble ash.

 

These requirements also include such characteristics:

1. Size range: open each briquette of average sample, whole content transfer on a paper and measure briquette sizes, calculate possible size range in mm or %. Standard sizes are equal to 124*67*12mm.

2. Mass range: a) after measurement of sizes each briquette of average sample weigh to within 0.1g on laboratory tares, calculating a range, expressed in %, of given mass of briquette.

b) determine an average mass of parts of cut and pressed MPM weigh 30 parts on laboratory tares. To determine a range of mass of each part weigh each of 30 parts. Mass range should not exceed 25%.

3. Strew presence: a) open briquettes of average sample unit, weigh with strew on laboratory tares. Later weigh strew separately, calculate its content in % of briquette mass.

b) open 5 selected packages of cut and pressed MPM, unite the contents, weigh.

Sift through a 5mm sieve, weigh mass, poured the sieve; calculate a content of strew and powdered units in %. Strew presence should not exceed 2%.

4. Time of splitting of briquette: a) transfer a unit of rectangle, or round briquette into 200-250ml conical flask, add 200ml of boiled water. Shake the flask slowly with frequency 1-2 times a second. Briquette is registered as splitted if it strewed on units or formed a crumbly mass, easily destroyed after glass rod touch.

b) transfer 10-12 pieces of cut and pressed MPM into 100ml conical flask, add 50ml of cold water, boil. Pieces are registered as splitted, if they do not keep primary form or transformed into crumbly mass. Briquette should split for less than 3 minutes.

5. Durability of briquette is determined allowing it free fall from a 1m height on a smooth surface. Briquette should not loose its primary form.